ARTERITIS VIRAL – Free download as Powerpoint Presentation . ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus. (EAV), an RNA virus classified in the genus, Arterivirus, family. English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word ‘arteritis viral equina’.
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Nowadays, Colombia has active import links of giral with countries in which EAV is present or has been reported, and has imported many horses from those countries. However, from a practical standpoint, equian is difficult to distinguish between EAV strains that can cause abortion and those which do not; additionally, there are aarteritis standard techniques to classify the strains based on their abortive properties.
From the epidemiological investigations carried out, it was concluded that the possible entry of the virus that occurred through a stallion imported incould have spread the infection to other susceptible horses on the farm. Out of the samples included in this study, The most important outbreak of EVA in America occurred inwhen the disease struck many racing thoroughbred farms in Kentucky.
Equine Viral Arteritis: epidemiological and intervention perspectives
These measures were subsequently gradually decreased, with today a greater emphasis on controlling the international trade of carrier stallions and infected semen, which have frequently been implicated in the spread of the virus eqiuna and between countries Timoney, b. Bull Equine Res Instit ; Additionally, import is also allowed of geldings that were negative between the ages of 6 and 12 months and werethenvaccinated.
Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral arteritis. Further properties of Equine Arteritis Virus.
EVA multi-state outbreak in U. The natural reservoir of EAV infection is the carrier arteritiw, which ensures the permanence of the infection in equine populations. Am Assoc Equine Pract Report a;7. This is not to mention the importance of exports which during the same period was over USD According to the World Animal Health Organization-OIE, a carrier stallion has serological positive for antibodies to the virus using the virus neutralisation test or an appropriately validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and also positive virus isolation from the semen Timoney, Persistent infection of the reproductive tract in stallions experimentally infected with equine arteritis virus.
A new group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Virus can persist in the stallion for weeks, months or years, even for life in some individuals.
Equine viral arteritis
Proceedings of the one-hundred tenth annual meeting of the United States animal health association. Report of the Committee equima Infectious Diseases of Horses: When a mare, a gelding or a sexually immature colt catches the disease, the animal excretes the virus through respiratory airways and develops a strong immunity to re-infection Fukunaga et al.
This result is very important if one considers that American commercial vaccines use strains which may not generate adequate immunity in our countries. Equine viral arteritis in perspective in relation to Int trade. The background in the Latin American countries presented above highlights the importance of serological surveillance, which informs us that a new agent has come in contact with the susceptible population of horses, and allows us to establish preventivemeasures toavoid spread of the virus.
However, from a practical standpoint, it is difficult to distinguish between EAV strains that can cause abortion and those which do not; additionally, there are no standard techniques to classify the strains based on their abortive properties.
It is necessary to mention that due to EVA is an exotic disease, vaccinations are not recommended in our country yet. For females a negative result or stability of neutralizing titers in two serological, evaluated 28 days prior to shipment is required.
Multi-state occurrence eequina EVA. The presence of EVA must be suspected if respiratory symptoms are accompanied by abortions. Arteritls through the years it has been recognized that EAV vidal contagious abortion in pregnant mares Doll et al.
Yet, since virus viability upon refrigeration or freezing is high, EAV can remain infective in frozen semen for long periods of time, even years Timoney, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela Virus isolation virxl be attempted using semen of two separate ejaculations, or mating two EAV-negative mares with the same stallion.
The outbreak affected six premises and around horses were infected. In contrast, adult males are very likely to become carriers of the virus for long periods of time and can transmit the virus to mares during mating Neu et al.
There also exists some variability between the strains based on their pathogenicity, some strains being capable of causing a wide range of clinical symptoms, collectively referred to as EVA in susceptible horses, equinna others produce only a slight fever Balasuriya et al. Genetic typing of equine arteritis virus isolates from Argentina. Additionally, the virus infects macrophages, which in conjunction with endothelial cell damage leads to increased release of proinflammatory cytokines that are heavily involved in the pathogenesis of “arteritis” Moore et al.
Cornell Vet ; Bleeding was performed on all the horses in order to detect possible cases of seroconversion.
Carrier stallions constantly eliminate the virus in the semen and srteritis the risk of transmission of infection is limited to the time of mating. Given these figures, an infection could clearly be devastating to our susceptible populations and the risk is too high to be ignored. Fatal experimental equine arteritis virus infection of a pregnant mare: Serologic and molecular characterization of an abortigenic strain of equine arteritis virus isolated from infective frozen semen and an aborted equine fetus.
For Latin American countries there arenotanofficialreportofprevalence due to there is only few studies xrteritis EAV serologic surveyofhorse’spopulationsdoesnotexist.