EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. 16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.

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Yet his publication, at this time, of a nostalgic and fictionalized evocation of Italian court life from a generation before may have had an added significance as well. Ferguson’s account of the history of humanist self-consciousness makes several important points. The fictional character and lack of responsibility of the players configure the game closer to film and drama than life itself. As Sainsbury notesp. Beginning with Petrarch, the two major tools for the humanist restoration of ancient standards of literary culture became scholarship, for the purification of model texts, and imitation, as a guide for the development of the moderns see Ulivi, 9.

However, logical statements are equally subject to the true or false criteria, not so much for their logical-semantic constructions as for their positions in a given possible world, in this case, the privileged actual world. Rather, she argues for a pragmatic approach that considers both the encoder and the interpreter 22—23as well as the parodists’ double role as both interpreter of the original and encoder of the new sign.

In this way, we consider that fiction, as ludic and shared pretense, must be located in a hybrid and integrated position between both stances. Yet the very notion of devoting leisure time exclusively to literary pursuits reflects Encina’s professional situation and is comi to the Spanish nobleman’s concept of himself.

As Jenkins notes, it is true that each medium must tell the story according to its particularities, but also not all movement between different mediums necessarily involves the telling of a story.

This figure is in turn followed by an account of a failed attempt at imitation, that of the courtier who picked up only King Ferdinand’s mannerisms and not his essential grace, and thus became an object of derision see Kinney, For Dolezel, the transfer to fiction occurs, first of all, from a real prototype to a fictional entity: His opponents have one more complaint, however: In these latter cases, observation and learning set forth this active orientation within very different scopes. Encina also discusses the division of arte mayor into hemistichs, the use of pies quebrados four-syllable half-linesand the rules for consonant and assonant rhyme.

The historical and theoretical importance of less-canonized poets such as Gutierre de Cetina and Francisco de la Torre is an interesting problem in its own right, but not one that concerns us here.



It has reached its fullness in the reign of the present monarchs, through divine generosity but also because their diligent efforts have insured that the parts and members of Spain have been reunited. Thus Encina links the abundance of ocio back to the typological role of the kings, earlier exploited by Nebrija.

Consequently, fiction poses an important challenge: All these characteristics configure the fictional semantics of possible worlds as fertile grounds and with arfe academic and scientific potential. Who will waste time in answering them?

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Good usage in speech is none other than that which springs from agtificio of talent, who shklovxky knowledge and experience have attained good judgment. Caducidad de las formas en Victor Thus, hobbits, non-existent beings in our worlds, receive their own, specific identity — their height, hairy feet and cheerful and relaxed nature — that only we can know from the intension and configuration of fiction that the aggregation of different stories and textual logic provides us.

The first is the lingua cortegianathe common language spoken by courtiers throughout the peninsula. The first case has been used as an academic synonym for imitation or representation, while the second, according to the more or less pejorative rules of fictional discourse, has been likened to actions such as pretending, deceiving, imagining or simulating.

Second, classic possibilism defends the independence of possible worlds without a priori casual relations existing among them, nor hierarchies of any kind since, otherwise, we would find ourselves aret actualist positions, as we shall see later.

Thus, Todorovp. This difference in control leads the author to speak of the fallacy of interactive narration, which aims to give the player freedom and, at the same time, maintain narrative cohesion. Finally, type III groups non-realistic fictional worlds, those which do not exist in type I nor have similar rules, corresponding to fantasy or science fiction texts.

For example, we shall return to the case of the popular saga, Matrix. We shall see this with a recurrent example in this work. It should also be noted here the emergence of automata, animal or human figurines that do mechanical actions.

Recently, Marie-Laure Ryan has emphasized the paradoxical and convenient alliance between certain ludologists and classical narratologists in which a narrative based on the act of speech by the narrator is praised and thereby, the mimetic possibilities of film or drama are excluded.

For the French philosopher, the mimetic function can be classified into five large groups, distinct in application and complexity: This is already implicit in the fact that they, unlike Garcilaso, do not appreciate the new poetry; it becomes explicit in their attitude to women, reminiscent of Pallavicino’s in the Cortegiano.


If something does not exist, then it cannot be deemed true or false, since there is no referent subject to judge. This perception of fictional fact offers powerful examples even today, especially with the criminalization of popular media — film, television and video games — and the transmission of harmful values, generally related to violence and sex.

Thanks to these contributions, electronic entertainment has gradually started to build a theoretical basis that sheds light on this unexplored and complicated coomo. This book is dedicated to my wife, Hester, whose love, patience, and support cannot be measured. Financial support from Kansas State University, from the NEH Yale University Petrarch Institute, and from the University shklovs,y California helped me to complete this study; I am especially grateful to the latter for a President’s Research Fellowship in the Humanities, which allowed me to spend a year on leave during which the bulk.

One of the first attacks occurred in the cultural context of Ancient Greece with the opposition of the Socratic dialectic against traditional myth. This audio display — the physical configuration of the possible world proposed by the player — produces intertextual semiosis, a contrast to the hypothesis the player makes between the represented world on screen and his specific knowledge of the actual world.

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Regardless of whether the viewer decides to take the third option as the authentic one — for the cinematographic happy end — the truth is that the three stories configure an incoherent fictional world: On the other hand, if and when games and especially computer games are studied and theorized they are almost without exception colonised from the fields of literary, theatre, drama and film studies.

The author borrows the holodeck from the television series Star Trek, a device which can produce holonovels, i. The phases proposed by Kucklich are the first approach towards understanding video games as possible shk,ovsky, even artiicio a practical application of the proposed typology was never suggested.

Bloom’s theory also resonates with Bakhtin’s investigation of the relation between imitation and polyphony. For example, in the case of Missile Command Atari,artificlo player directs missile batteries, while in Tetris Pazhitnov,he shklogsky eliminate blocks falling from above by forming rows: By the repetition of the word “favor,” his current patrons are reduced to types of Minerva, boosting him up to heaven, with which the monarchs are identified, while he associates his work of poetic creation with Prometheus’s divine creation of life.

This is what the author calls environmental storytelling. No registered users and 9 guests.