Holden Furber; The English Utilitarians and India. By Eric Stokes. (New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xvi, $), The American Historical Rev. OTHER REVIEWS. Jacobinism. He has also demonstrated the permanent damage to its prestige suffered by the upper house in when it became a. utilitarianism on Indian education: K. A. Ballhatchet suggests that it was exerted in India, not London, while Eric Stokes doubts that it was a significant factor even .

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The English Utilitarians and India

Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. He believed that, within certain rigidly defined external frontiers, the soundest policy was to use every just occasion to annex native states, and to resume pensions and revenue alienations made indka privileged classes before the British conquest.

All spoke against it. P, i83t-2, vol ix, p. It is indeed, there is the problem to solve, and the true mean insia hit between the technical and what the philo- sophers have been pleased to phrase the natural mode of procedure: If the controlling authority also engaged in executive functions, there would in practice be no check.

Mike added it Feb 07, In the eyes of the free merchants the ultimate advantage etokes political dominion was an indirect one. Superficially, there could be no doubt that the movement towards modernization, as embodied in the pressure of liberalism, must eventually favour the system of the rule of law and pursue the tradition ufilitarians Cornwallis. This was the error of the Whig inndia and of its leading exponent, Montesquieu.

The true wisdom in politics lay in the constant adaptation of institutions to conform with the progress of these forces. Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University’s proxy server Configure custom proxy use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy.

But never will I attempt to avert or retard it. Although he was impressed with the federalism of the United States, it was more natural for him to think in terms of a central controlling mind; and utioitarians he and his immediate disciples looked to the example of the French centralized bureaucracy. But the movement was not homogeneous, and was prevented from exploiting its gains by Indian condi- tions.


I should like to acknowledge the sympathetic help and encouragement I have received from Dr.

Full text of “The English Utilitarians And India”

When this stage had been reached, the political bond would become unimportant and wither away. What pleasure, sir, find we m life, to lock it from action and adventure? It presupposed a highly trained and efficient administration, possessing a familiar knowledge of the people and their agricultural system, such as had hardly begun to exist when Mill wrote his Htstory.

Already bythe free mer- chants were extending their attack to the whole of the Company s system of government and to its informing prin- ciple of leaving Indian customs and institutions undisturbed. Yet, on the other hand, they were largely in agreement with certain aspects of the Utilitarian viewpoint.

The transformation of the English in India from suppliant merchants to a ruling caste, consciously isolated and imbued with a sense of racial superiority, was a natural consequence of their career of conquest.

This new, coldly scientific and recon- dite political economy, of which James Mill was the ex- pounder, possessed none of the warmth of common life or the readability of Adam Smith. Most users should sign in with their email address.

Elphinstone would have scorned such a thought as affecta- tion, and on this ground he reserved his judgement on the Lake poets, though reading Byron avidly. Their doctrines, when pressed into rigorous and systematic form, drove them into positions which, questioned the comfortable assumption of progress held by Liberal opinion.

The Company should therefore cease to combine the contrary ‘functions of ruler and trader and renounce all connexion with com- merce.

In the shaping of Indian policy anr form of conservatism was tthe have a much stronger hold than in England, where the pro- gress towards an industrial society was rapidly to empty it of content. Its conception of the nature and exercise of political power sprang from Hobbes. It rested on the fallacy that a political society could be constructed anew, on the basis of abstract principles wrung from an alien tradition.


Without an adequate amount or food and leisure in the great body of the people, all education, according to Mill, was impotent. And it is significant that the new generation should be known as the Manchester School. The three most important features of the Evangelical mind for the present purpose were its intense individualism and exaltation of individual conscience, its belief that human character could be suddenly and totally transformed by a direct assault on the mind, and finally, its conviction that this required an educative process.

That it did not do so entirely was due to the success of utili- tarianism in showing how the originally conservative system of Munro might be transformed into a most powerful instrument for change.

That, in a state of extreme poverty, the motives which usually restrain from transgression; respect for stkoes laws, dread of the laws, desire of the esteem and affection, dread of the contempt and abhorrence of man- kind, sympathy with the pains and pleasures of our fellow engljsh, lose their influence upon the human mind, while many of the appetites which prompt to wickedness acquire additional strength.

For India, the definition and protection of individual rights meant principally the definition and protection of rights in the land. Crawfurd, who had been appointed as a spokesman in England for the Calcutta merchants, de- nounced it with fierce indignation: Their business was limited to admonition and persuasion, to make men conscious of Him and His dreadful commands; and they had no faith in the power of mere human laws to shape conduct and transform character.

Cheapness, speed, and simplicity, demanded that the form of procedure should exhibit the same qualities.