This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed . In the Philippines, Euphorbia hirta, known locally as “tawa–tawa”. Management of thrombocytopenia and flu-like symptoms in dengue patients with herbal water of Euphorbia hirta. Mir M, Khurshid R, Aftab R. BACKGROUND. PDF | Euphorbia hirta commonly known as Tawa-Tawa is a plant used in folklore medicine in the Philippines for the treatment of dengue.
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Euphorbia euphotbia is the most widely used plant in the folkloric treatment of dengue in the Philippines. This study documents the anecdotal uses of E. The number of use reports pertaining to symptoms of dengue and other diseases were tallied from 82 informants living in Anda Island, Mt.
Euphorbia hirta – a possible cure for dengue
The demographics of the informants as well as the corrected major use agreements cMUAs and fidelity levels FLs of each reported symptom of dengue were calculated. The major dosage forms used during treatment were also tallied. Respondents, dominated by the age group and mostly females with at least primary and secondary education, provided information on the use reports of E. High FL values were obtained for dnegue observed during the febrile phase. The most widely used dosage forms are decoctions of the leaves and barks of E.
This study was able to qualify the uses of E. The Philippine archipelago, consisting of about islands, is a center of endemicity and biodiversity where a large number of endemic eupjorbia have been reported to exhibit medicinal properties.
— ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants in this country were conducted in the archipelagos of Batanes and Visayas and the southern island of Mindanao.
There are limited ethnobotanical studies conducted in Luzon, the largest island in the Philippines. An online survey of ethnobotanical studies rengue in the Philippines showed that up to date, no documentations have been done on the anecdotal therapeutic uses of plants in Hiirta, a province which is situated in the central—eastern part of Luzon.
Pangasinan is one of the most populated provinces in the Philippine archipelago, with a population of about 3 million as of the census and a total area of km 2. It is located in the northern Ilocos region of the island of Luzon [ Figure 1 ].
The predominant climate degnue a wet season from June to October followed by a dry season from November to May. The average monthly temperature is Comprising the province are six political districts which have different dialects, cultures, and traditions, including the self-care use of medicinal plants which dehgue been passed to them from previous generations. The asthma weeds plant, Euphorbia hirtaalso known as Chamaesyce hirta L.
In a cohort study, Paredes et al. Despite these developments, there is no concrete evidence that reveals the effectiveness of this plant in humans infected with the dengue virus.
Potential Use of Euphorbia hirta for Dengue: A Systematic Review of Scientific Evidence
Since little information is known about the purported therapeutic claim of E. Three different indigenous areas in Pangasinan [ Figure 1 ] where E. Most plants were seen growing wild in places adjacent to homes, making collection possible, instead of cultivation.
It must be considered that the therapeutic uses of plants and the synthesis of bioactive constituents they contain are most optimized when these plants grow more slowly, particularly in the wild. The survey, data gathering and analysis was conducted from April to June of The aerial part of E.
The specimens in the field were pressed in between newspapers and treated with denatured alcohol. Properly oven-dried specimens were mounted in herbarium sheets with official label.
Herbarium specimens and photographs of the plants in their natural habitats were submitted to the Philippine National Herbarium for authentication. Each specimen of E. A validated semi-structured questionnaire was used to determine the number of use report for each specimen collected.
The questionnaire and the objectives of the study were relayed to each respondent, in either the Pangasinense or Ilocano dialect, whichever was appropriate. No appointments were made prior to these visits.
Information on the manner by which plant parts were prepared into dosage forms before administration was obtained per use report corresponding to symptoms of dengue. Each use reports maybe a specific disease state or a symptom. Use reports pertaining to symptoms of dengue were properly documented and tallied while use reports pertaining to other symptoms were tallied only.
For each of the 3 indigenous areas surveyed, at least 20 respondents aged were randomly selected. The sampling and survey were conducted from January 15 to March 15, An interview of municipal health officers in the Ekphorbia or town centers of the municipalities of Anda, Balungao, and San Fabian was also conducted to know the prevalence of patients infected with dengue from January to March To ensure no issues nirta the infringement of biodiversity rights arise, the local government in all dnegue surveyed, in collaboration with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, are consulted on the details of the sampling and collection of hjrta materials and the interview of local respondents on the use reports of these plants.
The major uses agreement MUA was determined as the ratio between the number of informants that independently cited E. The CF is the ratio between the number of informants citing E.
In this study, Vernonia cinerea L. Tally of use reports of E. The fidelity level FL of E. The questionnaires were evenly distributed to each of the 3 sampling sites surveyed, but more allocations were given to female respondents because females are perceived to have higher knowledge over males in the traditional self-care uses of medicinal plants, a tradition that could have been passed euhporbia them from previous generations. The majority of use hirtta pertaining to symptoms of dengue were given by respondents ageda significantly higher number as compared to younger counterparts vs.
This is because the respondents within this age bracket are more experienced than younger informants in the self-care uses of medicinal plants for dengue based on anecdotal information that is consistent with the eupjorbia rise in the epidemics of this disease for the previous years.
The use of medicinal plants also increased with increasing age to imply that the high dependence of these three indigenous communities on plants to treat dengye is still consistent with time. Elementary and secondary schools were found to have important roles in the dissemination of information on the self-care uses of medicinal hirtw in the three areas surveyed. Interviews with teachers in hirfa areas reveal that the study of medicinal plants on the scientific and anecdotal points of view has been incorporated in elementary and high school science curriculums.
There is a low number of respondents with dehgue educational attainment because most of the informants surveyed have lower income compared to inhabitants in more populated municipalities, in addition to the great distances of colleges which are mostly located in Uephorbia city propers — findings showing similarities to the observations of Abe and Ohtani [ 9 ] among Ivatans in Batan Island north of Luzon.
Table 1 shows the number of informants interviewed and the frequency of use reports relative to any symptom in the 3 sampling sites surveyed. There is overlapping citation of use reports in Table 1. For instance, 3 respondents in Mt. Balungao, 4 respondents cited the same plant for use in 7 symptoms of dengue in addition to 10 other symptoms. Furthermore, the absence of modern health facilities, clinics, hospitals and pharmacies in Anda Island may explain for the high dependence of its residents on medicinal plants.
An interview of municipal health officers within the vicinities of the 3 sampling sites surveyed shows a high prevalence of dengue infections in Anda Island from January to March ofwith 36 reported cases, including 2 casualties that affected mostly children ages 2 years and above.
Within this period, 17 and 15 cases of dengue were reported in the municipalities of Balungao and San Fabian i. Colisao is locatedeuphoorbia, with 1 reported casualty in Balungao. The high prevalence of dengue infection in the 3 sampling sites surveyed can be due to the lack of proper hygiene and euphorbiaa in possible breeding places of mosquito vectors.
From January 1 to September 5,the Department of Health reported 78, cases of dengue in the entire country, a Table 5 tallies and compares the number of use reports generated as symptoms of dengue in the 3 samplings sites surveyed and their cMUAs and FLs.
Prevalence of dengue symptoms in eengue indigenous communities in the province of Pangasinan. The cMUA reflects the relative importance of E. Euporbia febrile symptoms fever, headache, and joint pains have relatively high cMUAs as well. Symptoms such as hypotension, capillary fragility, and tachycardia have not been reported because the respondents are not familiar with the use of manual apparatus such as sphygmomanometers and torniquets.
It should be noted that the symptoms of dengue enumerated in Table 5 may be symptoms of other diseases euphorbla well, such as bacterial and viral infections and certain inflammatory conditions. A high FL is reflected when E. Relatively high FL values were obtained for similar symptoms with high cMUAs such as the bleeding episodes as well as symptoms observed in the febrile phase.
Journal of Tropical Medicine
From the 76 use reports related to dengue symptoms, about corresponding dosage forms of E. About dosage preparations were administered internally by mouth while the rest were applied topically to affected areas. Topical dosage forms i. Some respondents in Anda Island and Mt. Colisao recommended the use of at least 3 preparations for a single use report or symptom as well as the use of both internal and external preparations for a single symptom. Several ethnomedicinal studies have also reported that leaves are the most frequently used part because of their remarkable identity and accessibility in addition to the fact that most biosynthesis of therapeutically active constituents occur in leaves [ 10 – 12 ].
On the other hand, the use of leaf sap and latex was founded from the belief that these exudates from plants belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae possess antibacterial and antiviral properties and finds great application as antiseptics in the treatment of wounds [ 13 ]. The respondents did not described how cataplasms, poultices, paste, emollients and rubefacients are compounded although the issue of hygiene in their preparation are important, particularly if these dosage forms are to be applied externally to infected sites.
The global incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades, particularly in urban areas in countries with tropical climates, and becoming a leading cause of death among children [ 14 ]. Since there is no specific cure against dengue, treatment modalities include supportive measures to address specific symptoms. In rural areas, such as the three indigenous communities surveyed in this study, limited access to modern health care facilities limits early detection of dengue which is important to avoid long-term complications.
The lack of vector control against dengue-carrying mosquitoes in these areas further complicates the situation.
Potential anti-dengue medicinal plants: a review
The most commonly-used plants in the folkloric treatment of dengue in the Philippines include E. Although the people of Pangasinan have a long history of the traditional uses of medicinal plants, no ethnobotanical studies have been undertaken to document the traditional knowledge on their self-care uses of these plants.
Documentation of the traditional uses of E. The current supportive therapies for hospitalized dengue patients include hydration and blood transfusion as well as treatment degue acetaminophen since most non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are contra-indicated due to their anti-platelet augmenting properties.
Antiviral drugs and vaccines against dengue have yet to be fully developed. This study was able to document the anecdotal and traditional self-care uses of E. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Journal List J Intercult Hurta v.
Published online Apr 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Feb 25; Accepted Mar This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Dengue, ethnopharmacological, Euphorbia hirtaPangasinan. Open in a separate window. Map of the Philippines showing the province of Pangasinan and the three surveyed areas.