This manual is part of the FM series, which describes a contemporary. Opposing Force (OPFOR) that exists for the purpose of training U.S. forces. publications in the former Field Manual [FM] series will be TCs outline an OPFOR than can cover the entire spectrum of military and. First, the armor- and mechanized-based and infantry-based OPFOR modules . Likewise, some types of OPFOR described in FM can.

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If the OPFOR anticipates a meeting engagement battlean attack against an ill-prepared or overextended enemy, or a pursuit, the first echelon is normally tank-heavy at both tactical and operational levels, and forward detachments can probe ahead. Such forces may have primary responsibility for combating the air threat to the advancing unit and for the defense of critical points, including assembly and rest cm. The OPFOR establishes traffic control posts at start lines, obstacle crossings, road junction, crossroads, bypasses around population centers, and areas surrounding employed CPs.

Tactical march columns are used when moving into or through a battle area. Large armor- and mechanized-based forces can conduct large-scale, combined arms operations. However, the acceptable size of such security elements is generally smaller than in the gm area.

Such armies normally mount at least 40 percent of their ground forces in armored vehicles.

FM Armor- And Mechanized-Based Opposing Force Operational Art – Inroduction

Physical destruction missions targeting command and control and reconnaissance assets are critical to ensuring the enemy does not disrupt or delay movement. The army’s width opfpr be from to km. During fog, reduce day speed 25 to 30 percent.

If not, the infantry-based forces of FM may better fit training needs. The primary purpose of the field manuals in the series is to provide the basis for a realistic and versatile OPFOR to meet U. Within the wide area of responsibility termed the commandant’s areathe OPFOR creates specific sectors extending km along a march route, with several traffic control posts deployed at the aforementioned critical locations.

The army artillery group AAG usually moves in the first echelon so its deployment is unhampered and timely; in the same way, the division artillery group DAG often moves at the front of a division’s main body.

File:FM – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December ).pdf – Wikimedia Commons

Moving from the final assembly area opvor the line of commitment, first-echelon divisions can spread out more to observe proper tactical intervals see Figure In these areas, they could reconfigure themselves from march formation into combat formation for the attack, while still beyond the range of enemy artillery.


Units continuously dedicate time for the effective use of rm, concealment, and camouflage during movement and at halts. The name of that country would also be the State.

Road marches with or without combination with rail marches result in a more rapid concentration than pure rail moves, especially for distances under km. Traffic control and constant cover against air attack are essential, especially at obstacle crossings and chokepoints and in assembly areas.

Prior to hostilities, the emphasis is on providing a false or misleading picture to the enemy. Large armor- and mechanized-based forces often have more sophisticated weaponry. The plan stresses universal, o;for and redundant coverage.

File:FM 7-100.1 – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December 2004).pdf

In more typical cases, however, the U. However, the divisions may now move on three routes each, if possible; thus their depth remains about the same. Elements of the commandant’s service also help to establish and opgor command posts CPs.

In this case, the State’s military structure still consists primarily of the Ground Forces. To use FMtrainers must first develop a scenario. However, these Ground Forces are primarily infantry dismounted or motorizedwith relatively few mechanized infantry and tank units and perhaps some airborne infantry units.

For maintenance support, vehicles requiring medium repairs must go to damaged vehicle collection points for transfer to military district or army group repair centers. An infantry-based force differs from an armor- and mechanized-based force primarily in terms of technological level and the ability to integrate arms into combined opvor combat. Beginning prior to the initiation of hostilities, the OPFOR continuously conducts offensive and defensive IW activities throughout the duration of a march.

During a march from the depth to the final assembly area, an army allocates from two to four routes to each division and one to the remaining army troops. They opfod from an armor- and mechanized-based or infantry-based OPFOR primarily in size, technological level, and the ability to integrate arms into operations.

This series provides a flexible OPFOR package that users can tailor to represent a wide range of potential threat capabilities and organizations. However, the preferred method is for the first-echelon force to enter into combat directly from the march, without occupying a assembly area. To achieve these ends, the General Staff and theater CINCs, where applicable focus on measures to ensure timeliness and the use of all available means of movement.


Planners should take full advantage of the march capabilities of units, as well as the transportation infrastructure in the area of the march. The objective of the strategic and operational march is to insure that the military forces designated for specific operations arrive on time, intact and combat-ready, at the appropriate location. Sign In Sign Out.

Deceptive communications traffic emanating from the areas of the false units and routes, along with simulated thermal signatures, can contribute greatly to the impression the false OPFOR units are real. Next in priority is ground maneuver forces, artillery forces, key engineer units, and communications assets. Rather, they provide the building blocks from which users can derive an infinite number of potential orders of battle, depending on their training requirements.

It can be any specific foreign nation or organization with intentions and military capabilities that suggest it could become an adversary or challenge the national security interests of the United States or its allies.

During a march of over 1, km, there is likely to be at least one rest day, for essential repair and maintenance work. The constant supply of materiel reserves, especially POL, is also vital.

Cases may exist in which constraints on the use of classified information preclude the use of actual threat data. Thus, vehicles of similar type, speed, and cross-country capability may move together in packets rather than mixed with other vehicles as they are when prepared for combined arms combat. They may still be small and lightly armed but could have sophisticated, state-of-the-art light weapons. As seen in Figurea division on two routes is about km deep exclusive of march security elements.

The infantry-based OPFOR generally represents the armed forces of opvor developing country with limited resources. Rigid adherence to signals security procedures and the proper use of communications security COMSEC equipment and techniques will minimize information the enemy may collect through signals intelligence. Activities supporting deception, ipfor as radar corner reflectors, deception jammers, and dummy radio nets also contribute fmm the ESO counterreconnaissance effort.

While the OPFOR continues the attempt to mislead the enemy as to its intentions, as commitment approaches the emphasis shifts towards force protection and increased use of cover, concealment, and camouflage to deceive him.