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How to assess built heritage? The project has been inanced by National Science Centre under the decision no. From heritage values to character-defining elements in praxis Carsten Hermann, Dennis Rodwell.
Due to the nature of works carried out by ICOMOS, these de- bates are usually held in form of conferences and publications. Every year a number of topics are therefore veriied in terms of their importance to conservation areas. Only the ones which are of deepest signiicance for a large number of conservation ields are discussed on conferences.
What was conferred about in was value assessment. Its importance to protection of monuments and sites is unquestionable and needs no further illustration. Assessing values is of utmost importance at every stage of dealing with heritage: The considerable importance that value assessment has in monument protection re- sulted in a number of discussions being held. For the irst time the International Scientiic Committee on Theory and Philosophy of Conservation and Restoration debated the problem of value assessment in Values and Criteria in Heritage Conservation This monograph consists of ifty articles which focus on various aspects of heritage valuing.
This publication proved that the problem of value assessment should be ap- proached as a part of the contemporary conservation theory in particular. The contemporary conservation theory attempts to describe the complexity of heritage and its functions, regarding factors which determine the forms of its protection. It is, however, not a simple task because, apparently, the currently available theoretical tools are not efective enough in practice today.
The major problem is that more and more monuments are modernized, adapted, and transformed in order to meet the needs and standards expected from society today. The theory of conservation should, therefore, clarify and clearly outline the rules and limits of intervention pertaining to the historical design and substance. The pre-requisite at the outset must be a comprehensive analy- sis covering value assessment as well. Analysis of heritage values is, however, a far more complex process.
This results not only from uniqueness and purposes for which properties are used but also from regional aspects. As a consequence, gen- erally accepted methodologies of cultural heritage assessment need to be diferenti- ated, depending on a speciic cultural context. Considering the aforementioned conditions and needs, International Scientiic Committee for Theory and Philosophy of Conservation and Restoration decided to address the problem of value assessment once again.
In accordance with the aim of the conference, the authors of the papers provided herein were asked to fo- cus on two issues, i.
The articles published in this monograph are based on papers read at conferences and articles written by other authors interested with the discussed subject matter.
National Geographic – National Geographic Lietuva
The publisher disclaims liability for English versions of articles translated by their authors. Basic construct of such evaluation refers to two aspects: Every object can be assigned many diferent values, and at this point the role of the heritage expert in such process must be mentioned, too. Revitalisation is a process for deriving the state of emergency degraded areas, carried out in a comprehensive manner, through integrated activities for the local community, space and economy, concentrated geographically, led by stakeholders of revitalisation based on municipal revitalisation program; Art.
Afelt time and cost planning, specialist or expert critical veriication and the possible con- sequent modiications. In the long-run, based on a detailed evaluation, alteration of an object condition can be controlled and appropriate management plans and action programs can be made. As much as it is possible, for the sake of explicitness and gdo order to avoid misunder- standings, we should use terminology established at the highest level possible.
European standards are here very helpful, and there upon I have based the following deinitions2: In this article, the above notions are being used gel the sense assigned by these deinitions. Typical for the 21st century is a concise key deinition of the value that has been trans- ferred into the hands of society, since the professional conservators — representing both state or local conservation oices i. Up to that point they were exercising power over historical gfo, and in particular register of monuments, as a warrant and a symbol of power.
So formulated deinition of value can be derived from the intentions of faro Convention4, which reads: It includes all aspects of the environment resulting from the interaction between people and places through time; — a heritage community consists of people zugnalas value speciic aspects of cultural heritage which they wish, within the framework of public action, to sustain and transmit to future generations.
The conservators are being assigned the task of providing the heritage resources to the gep and future generations, which does not mean only physical enabling access, but also the interpretation and presentation5 of heritage, teaching the pub- lic understanding of the signiicance of historical monuments. Therefore, these docu- ments not only indicate the social zurna,as in the process of preservation of the xurnalas heritage — according to zjrnalas interpretation of the sustainable development concept — for future generations, but assign the public the leading role.
Question being — are the public stakeholders able to undertake this ideological challenge? An explicit answer could sound too paternalistic, autocratic and maybe even politically in- correct.
There is thus no doubt, that the problem of justiication of historical substance value gains new meaning and initiates social dispute over that issue, particularly within local communities. Afelt A new context in respect of the traditional approach to monuments preservation was introduced by UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape adopted on 10th Novemberwhere the below deinitions were contained: It also includes social and cultural practices and values, economic processes and the intangible di- mensions of heritage surnalas related to diversity and identity.
This should include the immediate setting zurnaalas the nominated property, important views and other areas or attributes that are functionally important as a support to the property and its protection. The area constituting the bufer zone should be determined in each case through appropriate mechanisms. Details of the size, characteristics and authorized uses of a bufer zone, as well as a map indicating the precise bounda- ries of the property and its bufer zone, should be provided in the nomination.
As for the United Kingdom, the irst monument of technical nature was the Ironbridge in Shropshire, constructed between —, recognized as such as a zuurnalas of beginnings of Industrial Revolution, and on the gro of the Ancient Monuments Act of put under protection in Unfortunately, during the WW II the Gel stole the equipment and devastated the buildings, and the restoration of the museum function started only in the 60s.
Nevertheless, the concept of heritage of technology — even though still nameless — reached the conscience of the community of Polish mu- zurnalqs curators, conservators and historians of architecture relatively early, broadening the idea zurnalxs monument of culture not necessarily being a work of art and architecture, or the product of arts and crafts or folk handicraft. The post-war curricula of the architecture and civil engineering facul- ties resulted in the fact, that prospect architects were becoming less and less aware of the history of the building materials, structures and technology, while civil engineers were learning nothing about the roots of their profession.
National Geographic (žurnalas)
It results today in a lack of academic preparation of Polytechnic graduates of various professions to undertake challenges in the ield of heritage of technology preservation.
It would seem, that the times of the real socialism regime after year would pro- mote the low of historical monuments, related to the working class culture, zurnalass indus- try, engineering and technical ields being subject of entries to Register of Monuments. That has not happened though; many generations of post-war conservators and art historians have given to sentimental neo-romantic rite of superstitious respect for the past embodied in monumental architecture, and preservation narration got stuck within artistic and historical narratives.
The architects took up the discourse on values of industrial architecture; generally being understood as shell construction, in fact being merely the building facades, the more decorated, articulated or zurnzlas — the more attractive and appealing. Afelt of these objects lays in their technological equipment and decor, remaining, however, at the service of their industrial production function.
This fact is being unnoticed, and results zurnakas refurbishment projects, wherein the excessive transformation causes loss of original meaning and character of revitalized objects, dazzling by mere use or crea- tion of diferent aesthetics, often purposefully creating an efect of damage or neglect, in presumption, that this makes something typical for an industrial building.
At the same time the buildings of the former gdansk Shipyard, including production halls from the 70s of the 19th century, of stylistics rang- ing from zunalas round-arch and arcade style after Karl Schinkel — Rundbogenstil germ. The need for relection on the cultural heritage status in Poland derives from statis- tics, as published in the National Program for the Protection of Monuments and the guardianship of Monuments10; of a total of entries in the national register of historic monuments on december 31,the monuments of technology make entries, or 3.
This would suggest, that at that time Poland was, and still remains, a country with negligible industrialization level, which is obviously not true. Therefore, all internal surfaces must be easy to clean and remove the unwanted textile industry dust.
What would then be the reason for this undervaluation of technical heritage, be it only in a statistic dimension? One possible answer is the inadequacy of the deinition con- tained in the Act of 23 July, on the protection of monuments and the guardian- ship of monuments11 vs. The very title of the document suggests three typological groups regarding the heritage o technology, which are namely: Afelt The Appendix to Recommendation No.
R 90 20 explains its objectives, as follows: The rapid development of industrial civilisation, the new types of production and em- ployment resulting from the recent economic crisis and the technological explosion, which is typical of our age and society, have led to farreaching upheavals in whole sectors of industrial activity, with the consequent major changes in urban or suburban landscapes involving the sometimes total disappearance of buildings, installations or vestiges of industrial activity.
Today, Europe is becoming aware of the technical, cul- tural and social value of this heritage as a whole which conceals an important part of the collective memory and European identity, some of whose elements deserve to be protected as part of the heritage. The Recommendation publishing date happens to be equal to the transformation breakthrough year in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. These resources were still present in the countries of continuous shortage of various products, lack of market competition, embargoes and restrictions, limiting technical progress and result- ing in a kind of backwardness, supporting and lengthening the life of equipment and technological lines with nineteenth century pedigrees.
This part of Europe was still saturated with factories, machinery equipment and engineering structures that were already in western Europe long gone, and their picture was preserved only in archives and ancient iconography.
Said Recommendation is not commonly known in Poland, even though I recall it in my publications for over twenty years, and its full translation I have recently published That last one provides following deinition: Industrial heritage relects the profound connection be- tween the cultural and natural environment, as industrial processes — whether ancient or modern — depend on natural zurnallas of raw materials, energy and transportation networks to produce and distribute products to broader mar- kets.
It includes both material assets — immovable and zurnalqs —, and intan- gible dimensions such as technical know-how, the organisation of work and workers, and the complex social and cultural legacy that shaped the life of communities and brought major organizational changes to entire societies and zutnalas world in general.
Many are representative of processes, technologies as well as regional or historical conditions while others constitute outstanding achievements of global inluence. Others are complexes and multiple site surnalas erations or systems whose many components are interdependent, with difer- ent technologies and historical periods frequently present.
The signiicance and value of industrial heritage is intrinsic to the structures or sites themselves, their material fabric, components, machinery and setting, expressed in the industrial landscape, in written documentation, and also in the intangible records con- tained in memories, arts and customs. This is a reference text, however, in practice, the more concise and broader deinitions of my authorship can be of better use in the everyday preservation practice: This concept includes not only the great works of human genius, but also modest objects that over time became a local scale sites of cultural interest.
The elements of intangible heritage15 may be connected to the tangible property. Afelt — Technofact means every component of technology heritage, so named to em- phasize its characteristics and the prevalence each technofact is an artifact16, but not every artifact makes a technofact.
To give an ex- ample, if factory buildings were to be deprived of the external walls, while still maintaining technological equipment, we would be dealing with a valuable cultural heritage of tech- nology, while doing the opposite — so common in the process of the revitalisation of the postindustrial substance — resulting in efect, when technology legacy ceases to exist.
A speciic manufacturing facility or an engineering structure exist in a landscape, being in diferent degree and in a diferent way associated with neigh- boring urban systems or natural areas. In general, one may consider the following eight types of technofacts forming a LHTR: Archaeological or underwater object: The detailed diagnosis of the build- ing substance and, above all, its structure and assessment of structural elements, outit and decoration interior are included in the condition report Technical de- scription and survey inventory of the structure and architecture should include ap- propriate research, allowing for a chronological dissection of the entire resource, i.
Personal inspection of the interiors allows identiication of the techno-aesthetic value. It must be considered, that the above items are easiest to disperse, thus jeopardizing the integrity of the resource. Massive movable object — transportable technofact, requiring the use of mechanical means of transportation due to the weight or size, like: A risk assessment for each component or collectively for multiple components exhibit- ing similar symptoms shall be performed and the urgencies expressed through the risk analysis shall be graded into four categories of urgency UC: An overall recommendation class RC for the built cultural heritage as a whole shall be speciied based on the risk assessment and recommended measures of all the components.
The overall recommendation class RC should be speciied by evaluating each component, its condition CC and risk RC expressed by four classes: Phase I — from the creation of the irst amendment, ie. Every change is developing a stratigraphic approach of a new phase.
Afelt get irst disposed by the trustee or the new owner, in case of a bankruptcy, causing disintegrating and degradation of the resource and contributing to often irreversible loss of possibly unique technofacts.