Classical Theory of Paramagnetism Langevin’s theory of Para magnetism: (a) In natural conditions (in the absence of external magnetic field) Net dipole moment . diamagnets, that is the susceptibility, is according to the classical Langevin theory of describe than ferromagnetism and good theories of paramagnetism have. Langevin’s Theory of Diamagnetism, Langevin’s Theory of Paramagnetism, Langevin’s Function, Saturation value of Magnetization, Curie’s Law.

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In this approximation the magnetization is given as the magnetic moment of one electron times the difference in densities:. Molecular oxygen is a good example. When a magnetic field is applied, the conduction band splits apart into a spin-up and a spin-down band due to the difference in magnetic potential energy for spin-up and spin-down electrons.

Paramagnetism – Wikipedia

When the dipoles are aligned, increasing the external field will not increase the total magnetization since there can be no further alignment. Although there are usually energetic reasons why a molecular structure results such that it does not exhibit partly filled orbitals i.

This effect is a weak form of paramagnetism known as Pauli paramagnetism. The paramagnetic response has then two possible quantum origins, either coming from permanents magnetic parajagnetism of the ions or from the spatial motion of the conduction electrons inside the material.

Langevin's Theory of Paramagnetism

Thus the total magnetization drops to zero when the applied field is removed. However, in some cases a band structure can result in which there are two delocalized sub-bands with states of opposite spins that have different energies. For low levels of magnetization, the magnetization of paramagnets follows what is known as Curie’s lawat least approximately.

The element hydrogen is virtually never called ‘paramagnetic’ because the monatomic gas is stable only at extremely high temperature; H atoms combine to form molecular H 2 and in so doing, the magnetic moments are lost quenchedbecause of the spins pair. The distances to other oxygen atoms in the lattice remain too large to lead to delocalization and the magnetic moments remain unpaired.


This page was last edited on 16 Decemberat Views Read Edit View history. In that case the Curie-point is seen as a phase transition between a ferromagnet and a ‘paramagnet’.

Langevin’s Theory of Paramagnetism

As stated above, many materials that contain d- or f-elements do retain unquenched spins. Consequently, the lanthanide elements with incompletely filled 4f-orbitals are paramagnetic or magnetically ordered.

In contrast with this behavior, diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields and form induced magnetic fields in the direction opposite to that of the applied magnetic field.

They are also called mictomagnets. In pure paramagnetism, the dipoles do not interact with one another and are randomly oriented in the absence of an external field due to thermal agitation, resulting in zero net magnetic moment.


For a paramagnetic ion with noninteracting magnetic moments with angular momentum Jthe Curie constant is related the individual ions’ magnetic moments. Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic fieldand form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

The mathematical expression is:. Conductivity can be understood in a band structure picture as arising from the incomplete filling of energy bands. In the case of heavier elements the diamagnetic contribution becomes more important and in the case of metallic gold it dominates the properties. The magnetic response calculated for a gas of electrons is not the full picture as the magnetic susceptibility coming from the ions has to be included.

Even in the frozen solid it contains di-radical molecules resulting in paramagnetic behavior. Unlike ferromagnetsparamagnets do not retain any magnetization in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field because thermal motion randomizes the spin orientations. Constituent atoms or molecules of paramagnetic materials have permanent magnetic moments dipoleseven in the absence of an applied field.


The above picture is a generalization as it pertains to materials with an extended lattice rather than a molecular structure.

Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers. Concepts in physics Electric and magnetic fields in matter Quantum phases Magnetism. An additional complication is that the interactions are often different in different directions of the crystalline lattice anisotropyleading to complicated magnetic structures once ordered.

Retrieved from ” https: Paramagnetic materials include aluminiumoxygentitaniumand oc oxide FeO.

There are two classes of materials for which this holds:. The bulk properties of such a system resembles that of a paramagnet, but on a microscopic level they are ordered.


In an paramagnetisk nonmagnetic conductor the conduction band is identical for both spin-up and spin-down electrons. Due to their spinunpaired electrons have a magnetic dipole moment and act like tiny magnets.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Salts of such elements often show paramagnetic behavior but at lf enough temperatures the magnetic moments may order. Stronger forms of magnetism usually require localized rather than itinerant electrons. The attraction experienced by ferromagnetic materials is non-linear and much stronger, so that it is easily observed, for instance, in the attraction between a refrigerator magnet and the iron of the refrigerator itself.